- A growing population
The Municipal Government of Canaman was home to 32,390 in 2010, having increased by 4,671 people between 2000 and 2010, at an average rate of 1.69% per annum. This is lower than the growth rate experienced during the period 1995-2000 of 4.04%, indicating that the population growth rate has slowed . If the growth rate of 1.69% per annum continues into the future, the municipality will be home to 35,816 people by 2016, and 40,274 people by 2023.
- An urbanizing population
In 2010, the 9 urban barangays were home to 19,808 people, or 61% of the total population. With ongoing urban growth and new residential subdivisions located in these barangays, it is expected that the proportion of the population living in urban barangays will increase in the coming years.
- Declining household size
The average household size across the municipality in 2010 was 4.9. The average household size is lower in urban barangays (4.8) and larger in rural barangays (5.1).
The average household size across the municipality declined from 5.3 in 2000 to 4.92 in 2010. This decline is expected to continue as access to fertility control improves, and more people live in urban barangays which traditionally are home to smaller households.
- High levels of poverty
In 2009, Canaman was home to 2,717 households living under the poverty line, accounting for 42% of all households. Of these households, approximately two-thirds were also living under the food threshold, indicating a more serious form of poverty.
- Low Household Incomes and Underemployment
Although 98% of the labor force is employed, the true employment situation is one of under employment, whereby many people are working less than they would like and therefore unable to generate a sufficient income to support their families. This characteristic is evident in the high levels of poverty.
- High Levels of School Completion, Low Levels of College Graduates
High school graduate is the most common educational attainment in the municipality, indicating that a good number of households can sustain the education of their members up to high school. Rates of school based education are higher in Canaman than across the province, while rates of post-school (e.g. college) education are proportionally lower.
This indicates that residents of Canaman have ample access to primary and secondary schools, and are able to attend these schools, but struggle to access higher education, possibly due to distance, cost and the necessity to start working.
Physical / Environmental Profile
- A land-locked municipality adjacent Naga City and the Bicol River
Canaman covers an area of 4,327 hectares. Situated about five kilometers from Naga City, the municipality is bounded on the North by the Municipality of Magarao and on the South by the Municipalities of Camaligan and Gainza. The Eastern portion is bounded by the City of Naga and to the Western side by the Municipalities of Libmanan and Pamplona with the Bicol River serving as a natural boundary.
- Sensitive Riparian Environments
The municipality is home to sensitive riparian environments along the Bicol and Canaman Rivers. The ongoing revegatation of these rivers is important to prevent erosion, which degrades the riverbank environment and siltation of riparian areas. Erosion can be particularly bad during flood events, when high volumes of water pass through quickly and erode river banks, and the top soil of surrounding areas flows into the creek systems. This reduces soil fertility by removing the most fertile soil strata, and silt up rivers and creeks.
- A Low Lying Flood Plain
The Municipality of Canaman is situated within the estuarine floodplain of the Bicol River basin. The entire municipality is relatively flat with localized depressions along the coastal regions. The slope ranges from 0-3 percent. The highest point elevation is about 5meters above mean sea level and the lowest point elevation being below mean sea level.
- Vulnerable to the impacts of flood and typhoon
The typically low elevation characteristic of the area makes it prone to seasonal heavy rainfall flashfloods and high tidal occurrences. Drainability of the flooded areas in the municipality is technically difficult because of low elevation characteristics. A total of 2,505.56 hectares are estimated to be moderately to severely flooded. The remaining area of 1,821.73 hectares is within the slightly elevated portion and ranges from “not flooded” to “slightly flooded”.
Flooding is often related to typhoon events, which frequently strike the Bicol region. Analysis of typhoon data between 2002 and 2012 indicates that than 90% of typhoons occur between April and December each year and majority of these will be during the 3rd and 4th quarters.
- A Changing Climate
The municipality of Canaman belongs to the fourth type of climate, where rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Rainfall is of Type B (humid) where rain is evenly distributed throughout the year, except in the three dry months between March and May.
However, it has been observed that this climate pattern is now becoming an inconsistent trend. In 2011, PAGASA prepared projections regarding likely changes to temperature, rainfall and the frequency of extreme weather events for all provinces in the Philippines, demonstrating the following possible trends for Canaman:
- An overall warmer climate, especially during March-April-May (the traditional dry season) and June-July August
- More rainfall overall, but with less rain during March-April-May (the traditional dry season) and more rain during June-July-August.
The impacts of such change are wide reaching, from changing the intensity and frequency of storm events to impacting agricultural production and availability of nutritious food during “dry months”.
- An Agricultural Economy
Agriculture remains the cornerstone of Canaman’s economy, with 71.7% of the total land area of the municipality, covering 3,101 hectares, used for agricultural purposes. 51% of this is irrigated and generated P126,243,400 of value in 2011, while 48.16% is non-irrigated and generated P96,771,000 of economic output.
Decrease in volume of production is a key issue in this sector. Low production could be accounted to typhoon, flood, saline intrusion, pests and diseases and also due to excessive use of synthetic fertilizers. Ongoing programs to work with farmers regarding synchronized planting, composting instead of burning of rice straws, shifting towards the organic farming approach, diversified and integrated farming and the use of high yielding varieties are needed, such as those being showcased at the Canaman Livelihood Centre at Sta Cruz.
- A Growing Commercial and Services Sector
While traditionally an agricultural economy, the service economy has been steadily growing for some time, with more service businesses located in the municipality. In addition, a growing number of the municipality’s residents are working in the nearby Naga City.
Despite the variety of goods available locally, people from the municipality tend to shop at the malls in Naga City since it is just 5 kilometers away from the City. While historically goods were cheaper to purchase in Naga, a growing number of wholesalers are opening in the poblacion area, meaning that goods in Canaman are often no more expensive than those in Naga City. The Canaman Public Market is a thriving commercial precinct home to a range of produce, food, home wares and cooked food outlets. The Market is well located in the heart of the poblacion area, adjacent to key community facilities such as the municipal health clinic, library, post office and within a short walk from the church, school, public plaza multi-purpose pavement and municipal hall. Despite this, the market building itself is run-down and requires maintenance in order for the facility to reach its full potential.
While anecdotal evidence suggests there is un-met demand for additional and larger commercial developments in Canaman, it is important that these are located and developed in ways that do not undermine the Canaman Public Market’s role as the anchor land use in the poblacion area.
- Fisheries, Nipa and Abaniko
Fish production, nipa processing and abaniko present economic opportunities for taga-Canaman based upon products that are readily available. These products may help households diversify their incomes while also developing the “brand” of Canaman.
- Un-tapped tourism potential
The town of Canaman is rich with culture and traditions that are rarely known by other people, and are potential tourist attractions. In terms of places, Our lady of Assumption Parish Church draws visitors to the poblacion area, while the Bicol River has tremendous, currently unrealized tourism potential because of its open and natural character. Bird-watchers, as well as those interested in water based recreation such as dragon-boating, might be drawn to the area if there was suitable facilitates and activities. The TangcongVaca Guerilla Unit Marker Cum Park is a newly constructed park in honor of the TangcongVaca Guerilla Movement located on the island barangay San Nicolas which may draw visitors with an interest in history.
- A large number of ‘makeshift’ homes
In 2009, 2,741 houses in Canaman (42%) were constructed from light-weight/makeshift materials. These houses are seen as vulnerable to disaster such as typhoons and flooding, which are common occurrence in the municipality and expected to worsen in the years ahead because of climate change.
- Informal Settlers living in risky locations
There are increasing numbers of informal settlers establishing housing in the municipality. Most of the informal settlers are living in environmentally sensitive areas, and in some cases, areas at high risk of being impacted by a flood event.
it is important that long term solutions are found for the municipality’s informal settlers that provide basic shelter and some form of tenure security in locations that are not at high risk of flooding (such as along rivers and drains) and are well connected with existing built up areas.
- An overcrowded cemetery
The Catholic cemetery at Dinaga is overcrowded and cluttered, with all of the burial plots being occupied, in some cases up to six layers of tombs high. Non-Catholics are not served by the Catholic Cemetery, and even Catholics are experiencing difficulty locating a place to bury their departed family member, especially if they do not have a departed relative already occupying a space at the cemetery.
The number and proportion of malnourished Children in the municipality increased between 2009 and 2011, impacting 1172 or 27% of children under 5 in 2011. Malnutrition increases the risks for infection and affects the motor, perceptual and cognitive functions of children and can have long-term consequences. The municipality has commenced a response to this challenge with the Nutrition Early Warning System in five barangays.
- Limited health facilities and services
Although improvements to the Municipal Health Center and establishment of the Birthing Clinic have widened locally-available health services, many taga-Canaman in rural and coastal barangays are still unable to access basic health services.
Below average facilities and personnel numbers for our protective services
Personnel and facility provision for both PNP and BFP are below national standards. PNP Canaman need 7 personnel to conform to the minimum-police-to-population ratio based from their standard of 1:1,000 ratio. A minimum of 600 square meter allotment is required to accommodate a bigger police station. The Municipal Fire Station is located at the ground floor of the Municipal Hall with an area of 9 sq.m. This is too small to accommodate three employees and to store equipment. An additional 13 firefighting personnel are needed to conform to the standard ratio of 1 firefighting personnel: 2,000 population. Acquisition of a fire truck is also needed to serve the municipality’s constituents who are in need of fire assistance.
- Road and bridge projects need completion
Road projects in recent years have significantly improved connections between rural and coastal barangays with the poblacion and Naga City. The circumferential road and north-south connector need completion as a matter of urgency.
The proposed bridge at Fundado, a National Government project, is expected to bring significant benefits to barangays on the road between Fundado and Magarao. Proposed bridges to Iquin and Linaga are expected to bring significant improvements to the quality of life for residents of those barangays. A particular challenge in recent years has been the degrading quality of many of the municipality’s bridges. In addition, some new bridges are not wide enough to allow to tricycle to pass, significantly limiting their benefits to local communities.
- No transport terminals in the poblacion
There are currently no transport terminals in the poblacion area. This means that jeepneys, tricycles and padyacks wait outside the market and health clinic, adding to the congestion in that area.
- Issues with water supply and quality
Water supply system in the municipality is divided into two; Level 1 is the point sources which includes the Shallow well and Deep well. Level II is the communal faucet system and Pumps. The area coverage for Level I is all 24 barangays of the municipality, while shallow well serves a total population of 2,012 household or 30.82% of the total and 3,814 households or 58.42%of the total population for Deep Well. The Metro Naga Water District recently constructed a storage and pumping facility in San Agustin. Once operational, this facility will allow water to be supplied to the municipality poblacion area direct from the Isarog supply and therefore is high quality.
Water quality is a particular concern in rural barangays. A recent pilot project supported by the Department of Agrarian Reform treated groundwater and rainwater locally using easily operated and maintained equipment. The project, known as CP Wash, is located in barangay San Francisco and early signs suggest the technology is easy for local residents to operate and maintain the equipment and therefore may provide a model for other rural barangays that suffer from poor water supply and quality.
- Drainage, Irrigation and Flood Control
Well planned drainage, irrigation and flood control can protect lives, homes and property from catastrophic damage in times of flood and therefore achieve disaster risk reduction and basic safety goals. At the same time, it brings considerable economic benefits, through improved productivity (e.g. waterlogged land) and reduced costs of disaster recovery. It also improves the quality of the local environment.
There is a need for a Comprehensive Drainage System Plan that considers flood protection, drainage, existing and future infrastructure, waterlogged land and topography holistically, rather than on a case-by-case basis, is needed. A short term priority is the de-silting of the Canaman Creek and the main flood control structure. These projects will deliver short term flood control works that protect homes while also improving drainage that has benefits for the agricultural sector and improving the environmental quality and sanitation of the surrounding area by removing rubbish and other obstructions.